Forensic science has become a cornerstone for advancing investigations or establishing facts in question to support litigation. While some forensic science disciplines are grounded in rigorous scientific theory, others rely on mere subjective judgments which has caused severe criticisms from scientific advisory bodies in the United States. There are several factors that have contributed to these disciplines’ lack of progress in addressing the criticisms and improving their scientific foundations. Although lack of resources may be one reason, more challenges are structural and cultural in nature. Opposition to changing these cultural and systematic undercurrents has severely stifled meaningful progress in these areas. This session will discuss these challenges from a variety of perspectives and promote a dialogue of how to navigate these issues and ensure a fair and effective criminal justice system.